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“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Sexual Assault Investigation
Rape Victims are Class of Persons often defined by Gender
“I discovered long ago that among the most effective advocates
General, Janet Reno,
Although both women and men may be victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking, women are the victims of the vast majority of these crimes. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, more than 85% of violent victimizations by intimate partners between 1993 and 1998 were perpetrated against women. Women are between 13 and 14 times more likely than men to be raped or sexually assaulted; for instance, in 1994, 93% of sexual assaults were perpetrated against women. Four of five stalking victims are women. Data on male victimization do not show that males experience comparable victimizations and injury levels, do not account for women who act in self defense, and do not measure financial control, intimidation, and isolation used by perpetrators of domestic violence against women.
The gender issue is foremost in sexual assault issues, and is usually background in general victimization. The unique cultural bias and shaming that accompanies rape cases needs its own focused opposition. The history of rape law is a history of the law used as a tool to protect rapists, rather than the raped. The anti-rape movement confronts, as it must, the cultural myths that uniquely exist in the context of rape. Manipulation of these myths, along with humiliation and victim blaming, are typical informal defenses to rape charges. Blaming victims in rape cases may be an effective means to secure acquittal. In contrast, blaming a robbery victim is typically ineffective because robbery is unaccompanied by the same pernicious cultural myths. The nature of stigma and abuse in rape cases is profound and unique, a criminal process that mistreats and excludes other types of victims also inflicts secondary victimization.
In 2002, there were 247,730 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assault.[v] One out of every six American women have been the victims of an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime (14.8% completed rape; 2.8% attempted rape). A total of 17.7 million women have been victims of these crimes.[vi] In 2002, one in every eight rape victims were male.[vii] 93% of juvenile sexual assault victims knew their attacker; 34.2% were family members and 58.7% acquaintances. Only seven percent of the perpetrators were strangers to the victim.[viii]
One of the most startling aspects of sex crimes is how many go unreported. The most common reasons given by victims for not reporting these crimes are the belief that it is a private or personal matter and that they fear reprisal from the assailant.
So, even in the 39% of attacks that are reported to police, there is only a 16.3% chance the rapist will end up in prison. Factoring in unreported rapes, about 6% of rapists—1 out of 16— will ever spend a day in jail. 15 out of 16 will walk free.[xvi]
Rapist are predators. Just like animal predators, they seek out the weakest and/or most vulnerable prey. Rape is not about sex, it is an act of brutal violence. Rape causes pain and suffering in the victim that may last a lifetime. It eats away at the soul and destroys the quality of life. FBI estimates indicate that only 10 percent of rapes are reported. Of those reported, in less than 25 percent are the rapists arrested. Of those arrested, only about 3 percent are charged. Of those charged, no more than 35 percent are convicted. In other words, most rapists are not caught.[xvii] According to The National Coalition Against Sexual Assault false rape reports only happen 2% of the time. That's a 98% chance that no matter how strange it sounds to you the rape isn't being fabricated. Delayed reports also are common, particularly in acquaintance rapes. The majority of mental health professionals surveyed (84 %) agreed that contact with social service providers re-traumatizes rape victims. [xviii]
Some reasons why women do not report rape seem are the fear of:
2) Personal questions asked by police investigators
3) Humiliating medical examinations
5) Testifying in court
6) Fear that sexual past will come out in court
7) The victim has the burden to prove that the attack was forced, against her will, and that she resisted the attack.
8) Justice system's inability to put the criminal away
9) Retaliation from assailant or his friends
These are real concerns that must be overcome before rapists may be brought to justice. Rape statistics show that Rapists are on an ascending scale of violence with each assault. More than 50% of all rapes occur in the home of the victim. More than 93% of the time, the assailant and the victim are of the same race.
[ii] For more statistics and links to all primary sources, see RAINN’s Statistics Archive. For information and resources on sexual assault, rape and drug-facilitated sexual assault, http://www.911rape.org/.For more information and statistics, visit the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics.
[iii] National Crime Victims Rights Resource Guide 2005 www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/ncvrw/ 2005/pdf/NCVRW2005resourceguide.pdf
[iv] National Crime Victims Rights Resource Guide 2005
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/ncvrw/ 2005/pdf/NCVRW2005resourceguide.pdf -
[vi] Prevalence, Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women Survey, National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998
[viii] Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 2000
[x] 2000 NCVS
[xi] 2000 NCVS
[xiii] Sexual Abuse of Boys, Journal of the American Medical Association, December 2, 1998
[xvii] "Promoting. US Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. An Analysis of data on Rape and Sexual Assault. Sex Offenses and Offenders” www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/soo.pdf
[xviii] Secondary Victimization of Rape Victims: Insights from Mental Health Professionals Who Treat Survivors of Violence by Rebecca Campbell, and Sheela Raja, University of Illinois at Chicago Published: Violence and Victims, V. 14 (3), 1999
Forensic Sexual Assault Exam
Rape of a detainee by an official of the State must be considered to be an especially grave and abhorrent form of ill-treatment given the ease with which the offender can exploit the vulnerability and weakened resistance of his victim. Furthermore, rape leaves deep psychological scars on the victim which do not respond to the passage of time as quickly as other forms of physical and mental violence. The applicant also experienced the acute physical pain of forced penetration, which must have left her feeling debased and violated both physically and emotionally. (Aydin v Turkey, para. 83)
Neurobiology of Trauma
Proper Policies, Protocols and Procedures for Rape Investigation
As a sexual assault victim, you can check to see if the law enforcement officer who is working with you on your case is applying the best methods of investigating your case by going through this simple checklist. It will help highlight areas of possible concern and may enhance communication and improvement of services to you as a crime victim.
Upon first contact with law enforcement, did the responding officer should give the victim verbal and written notification of her/his rights according to state or federal law. (by giving the victim a card that specifies their rights in accordance with state or federal law, often referred to as a “Reverse Miranda” card.)
Was the information be language and age appropriate? Brochures on emergency and crisis services, and crime victims compensation should be developed in different languages— as well as for victims with physical and/or mental disabilities—and distributed appropriately
Did the Law enforcement agencies utilize community partnerships to ensure that the victim had access to the following emergency services, financial assistance, information and community programs:
Was there on-site crisis intervention, assistance and support, either by a trained law enforcement officer or through on-site support from a victim services professional?
Were there immediate referrals, verbally and in writing, to community agencies that offer emergency services, emergency financial assistance, 24 hour crisis intervention, shelter and transportation? Proper referrals should include current names and telephone numbers of private and public victim assistance programs that provide counseling, treatment and other support services.
Did the law enforcement agency provide transportation and accompaniment to emergency medical services if the victim was injured?
Did the law enforcement agency provide a brochure or other written resources that explain the expected reactions victims have to specific crimes?
Did the officer provide written information about crime victim compensation and how to apply for it?
Was the Victim informed that she/he would not be charged for certain medical procedures or for costs arising out of the need to collect and secure evidence?
Protection from Intimidation and Harm:
Did the officer provide verbal and written notification about the procedures and resources available for the victim’s protection?
Did the officer provide an explanation of anti-stalking rights, availability of emergency protection orders, other protection from intimidation and harassment measures, as well as information on victim safety and security?
Was the victim notified of the release of the accused and was there inclusion of orders of no contact with the victim as conditions of the release?
Did the law enforcement officer provide the victim with a verbal and written orientation to the investigation process?
Did the law enforcement officer follow procedures that allow a victim to choose an individual to accompany them to interviews?
Did the officer provide to the victim the name and telephone number of the law enforcement officer investigating the offense and the arrest, and the police report number or any other identifying case information?
Was the victim given a free copy of the incident and arrest report?
If an arrest has been made, victims should be notified of:
Was the victim notified of the arrest of the defendant?
Was the victim notified of the next regularly scheduled date, time, and place for initial appearance?
Was there notification to the victim of any pretrial release of the defendant?
Was the victim notified of her/his rights within the criminal and juvenile justice processes, including the right to be present at all justice proceedings that the accused, defendant and/or prisoner has the right to attend, and the right to be heard, both orally and/or in writing, at various stages of the case?
Was the victim notified upon release of a suspected offender, notification of the date, time and place of the next court appearance, and how to obtain additional information about the subsequent criminal proceedings?
If there is no arrest within 7 days:
Did the officer provide information about the right to notification of arrest, providing the victim maintains a current address, regardless of the length of time between the commission of the crime and the date of arrest?
If the case has been submitted to a prosecuting attorney’s office:
Was the victim notified of the name, address and telephone number of the prosecuting attorney assigned to the case?
Prompt property return:
Was there speedy return of property held by law enforcement with victims provided with verbal and written information on how to obtain their property?
Did the police department provide free storage of the victims’ property?
Did the police department provide reimbursement for the actual replacement costs of any property that is lost, sold or damaged while being held as evidence?
This checklist is based on New Directions from the Field: Victims’ Rights and Services for the 21st Century, Policies, Protocols, and Procedures for a Comprehensive Law Enforcement Response to Victims of Crime
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Office for Victims of Crime, NCJ 170600
Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment of Rape & DV Victims
Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment and Cyberbullying – state statues
Rape as a Crime Under International Law
Internationally Recognized Rights of Sexual Assault Victims/Survivors
According to paragraph 1 of the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, the term “victims” “means persons who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within Member States, including those laws proscribing criminal abuse of power”.
This definition covers many categories of harm sustained by people as a consequence of criminal conduct, ranging from physical and psychological injury to financial or other forms of damage to their rights, irrespective of whether the injury or damage concerned was the result of positive conduct or a failure to act.
Quite importantly, according to paragraph 2 of the Declaration a person may be considered a victim “regardless of whether the perpetrator is identified, apprehended, prosecuted or convicted and regardless of the familial relationship between the perpetrator and the victim”. According to the same article: “The term ‘victim’ also includes, where appropriate, the immediate family or dependants of the direct victims and persons who have suffered harm in intervening to assist victims in distress or to prevent victimization.”
It may be said at the outset that the primary concern should, in general, be to ensure that persons whose rights have been violated in one way or another feel that justice has been done. It is therefore important always to bear in mind that, to avoid further disillusionment on the part of victims of crime, everybody working in the criminal justice system must show respect and understanding for their concerns, needs and interests. Thoughtlessness and lack of consideration might otherwise needlessly add to victims’ pain and disappointment.
While there is no universal convention dealing with the rights of victims of conventional crimes, the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1985, the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, the text of which had been approved by consensus by the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. To promote implementation, a Guide for Practitioners Regarding the Implementation of the Declaration was prepared, and the United Nations Economic and Social Council, by resolution 1990/22 of 24 May 1990, invited the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders to give wide distribution to the Guide.
Rape as a Crime Under International Law
The United Nations Security Council officially recognized rape as a tactic of war. Rape is classified as an act of torture within international human rights, humanitarian and criminal law. Rape is used to discourage dissent and to demonstrate power and it can be used to create an environment of fear that systematically breaks down the cohesion of a community by creating division and shame which tears apart social and family bonds. Rape in such a context is a war crime. Rape occurs also frequently in detention and in some countries is almost expected when a woman has been tortured.
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) states: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights..."
There is a human right to self autonomy and personal dignity. A person whether a man or woman has the human right to refuse sex with any particular person, at any particular time, under any particular set of circumstances. Consent is the issue, no one else has the right to make that decision for another. It does not matter whether force, coercion or fraud have been used, if the person's right to decisions regarding her/his personal autonomy has been ignored and he/she has been humiliated then it is rape - only if she/he has consented would it not be rape.
On July 17, 1998 the International Criminal Court was created and on April 11, 2002 the Rome Statute (establishing the court) was ratified, coming into effect in July 2002. The International Criminal Court can not only prosecute nation states for committing crimes against humanity under the Rome Statute, but certain types of non-state actors can be prosecuted as well.
The definition of rape in The Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) includes two key elements:
"The perpetrator invaded the body of a person by conduct resulting in penetration, however slight, of any part of the body of the victim or the perpetrator with a sexual organ or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body."
"The invasion was committed by force, or by the threat of force or coercion, such as that was caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression, or abuse of power, against such person or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment or the invasion was committed against a person incapable of giving genuine consent."
One of the most significant aspects of the above elements is the presence of the "coercive environment" and the inability of a person to give consent. This moves away from an assumption of implied consent and recognizes that under certain coercive circumstances the assumption works the other way--namely, the assumption is that the sex was unwanted.
The Statute of Rome had included rape in its definition of crimes against humanity, but the Foca rape case made that language a reality. After the court's decision in the Foca case, one commenter noted that, "Now we say rape is a crime, a crime against humanity, or a war crime or a constituent part of genocide." The ICC Statute is important because it expands the coverage of crimes against women to more than just rape. The ICC statute also makes clear that such crimes as sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization and sexual violence are all punishable under international law.
The Foca case taught us that it is extremely important that the court considers the views and concerns of victims throughout the legal proceedings. Experienced professionals with expertise in trauma, especially trauma related to sexual violence should provide psychological counseling to victims and witnesses. There also need to be special advisers with legal experience on the special issues regarding sexual and gender violence against children. It must be remembered that the victims put themselves in danger by agreeing to testify and the court should take appropriate measures to protect the safety and the physical as well as the emotional well being of the victims. These mechanisms to protect victim rights are crucial to establishing the truth about these serious crimes.
Applicable International Law:
_ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
_ International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
_ International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965
_ Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979
_ Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment, 1984
_ Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
_ United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000, and Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the Convention
_ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
_ Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, 1985
_ Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, 1993
_ African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 1981
_ American Convention on Human Rights, 1969
_ Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women, 1994
_ European Convention on Human Rights, 1950
_ European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes, 1983
Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. R (85) 11 to the Members States of the Council of Europe on the Position of the Victim in the Framework of Criminal Law and Procedure, 1985
Related Information Available On Line
Sexual Violence and Abuse Action Plan April 2007
Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault PowerPoint
Books on Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault Investigation
The FBI's Restrictive Definition of Forcible Rape
The FBI’s “forcible rape” definition is very restrictive and does not adequately encompass all forms of the crime. The Uniform Crime Reporting Program - UCR's summary reporting system, which functions as the rubric for measuring national crime data, defines rape as “the carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her will.”
It continues: “Attempts or assaults to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape (without force) and other sex offenses are excluded.”
But that definition does not include many instances that most people would consider rape including:
- All rapes of men (it is estimated that 1 in 6 men will experience a rape in their lifetime)
- All rapes with a foreign object
- All incidences of oral or anal rape
Male victims/survivors of sexual assault can find information at MaleSurvivor.org
The Universal Crime Reporting Program counted 89,000 instances of “forcible rape” in 2008. But the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) counted 203,830, more than twice as many rapes. The NCVS, which is administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, differs from the UCR in that it is a survey and it can count crimes that are never officially reported. According to RAINN approximately 60% of all rapes fall under that category.
US Federal Witness/Victim Assistance
Victims of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking a. Statement of Purpose Victims’ rights laws and policies are of particular importance to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. These crimes often cause emotional trauma in addition to physical injury. It may be more difficult for victims to report these crimes because of the social stigma associated with the crimes and because the victims often have an on-going relationship with the offender. These victims often are in great danger of future violence after reporting a crime, during investigation and prosecution of cases, and after defendants are released from prison. Appropriate responses in these cases can save lives, prevent future violence, and promote victim recovery. Department personnel who work with victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking should recognize the particular vulnerability of these victims, use their best efforts to respect the privacy and dignity of these victims, and make victim safety a high priority.
(1) Evidence of Past Sexual Behavior Evidence about a victim’s past sexual behavior or alleged sexual predisposition is generally inadmissible in court. Prosecutors should be aware of this evidentiary rule and use it when appropriate. (Fed. R. Evid. 412).
(2) Policy Strongly Discouraging Sexual Assault Victim Polygraphs Department personnel are strongly discouraged from asking sexual assault vic-tims to take polygraph examinations. The investigating agent may ask a sexual assault victim to take a polygraph examination only in extraordinary circum-stances and only with the concurrence of a Special Agent in Charge or the Super-visory Assistant United States Attorney. All reasonable alternative investigative methods should be exhausted before requesting or administering a sexual assault victim polygraph examination.
(3) Referrals for Assistance in Developing a Safety Plan for Domestic Violence Victims A safety plan is an individualized plan developed by domestic violence victims to reduce the threats of harm they and their family members face. Safety plans in-clude strategies to reduce the risk of physical violence and harm (e.g., obtaining a protective order) and strategies to maintain basic human needs (e.g., housing and income) in spite of the disruptions caused by the victimization, which may include relocation, loss of employment, and physical injury. Victims may need assistance in identifying potential risks to safety and well-being, options for addressing those risks, and information about the types of services and support that may be required from the criminal justice system and community-based providers. Department personnel should consider providing referrals to community-based victim services programs to address those needs. Victim assistance personnel should also be familiar with any programs that exist in the jurisdiction that allow for confidentiality of the victim’s address and the require-ments for enrollment in those programs.
(4) Limited Testing of Defendants in Sexual Assault Cases The responsible official shall advise a victim of a sexual assault that poses a “risk of transmission” of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus of the circumstances under which the victim may obtain an order that the defen-dant be tested for this condition and that the results be shared with the victim. (42 U.S.C. § 14011(b)(1) (2006)).
(5) Payment for Forensic Sexual Assault Examinations The responsible official or the head of another department or agency that con-ducts an investigation into a sexual assault shall pay, either directly or by reim-bursement to the victim, the cost of a physical examination of the victim and the costs of materials used to obtain evidence. (42 U.S.C. § 10607(c)(7)). Department personnel should inform the sexual assault victim that he or she may choose to have the department or agency conducting the investigation pay the cost of the examination directly. In no case shall the victim be held respon-sible for payment for the examination or be required to seek reimbursement for the examination from his or her insurer. Moreover, in no case shall a victim of sexual assault be required to cooperate with law enforcement or prosecution in order to be provided with a forensic medical examination free of charge.
At the time of an assault, the victim may not be prepared to make a decision to cooperate with the investigation and prosecution of a sexual assault case. Provi-sion of the free forensic exam ensures the evidence is collected and will be avail-able (i) should the victim decide to cooperate, (ii) if the government decides to prosecute without the victim’s cooperation, or (iii) if the evidence is needed at a later date. In cases of sexual assault in Indian Country, it is critically important that the investigative agency fulfill its responsibility to pay for forensic sexual assault examinations because other resources are unlikely to be available, and the ab-sence of a forensic exam may hinder the ability of prosecutors to proceed with a criminal case.
(6) Availability of Payment for Testing and Counseling in Cases of Sexual Assault The responsible official of the investigative agency shall inform victims of the At-torney General’s obligation to pay the costs for up to two anonymous and confi-dential tests of the victim for sexually transmitted diseases during the 12 months following the assault, and to pay the cost of a counseling session by a medically trained professional regarding the accuracy of such tests and the risk of trans-mission of sexually transmitted disease to the victim as a result of the assault. (42 U.S.C. § 10607(c)(7)). ''
(7) Right To Make a Statement About Pretrial Release The responsible official shall reasonably, and in a timely manner, inform a vic-tim of an interstate domestic violence, violation of a protection order, or stalking offense that he or she has the right to make a statement regarding the danger posed by the defendant for the purpose of determining pretrial release of the defendant or the conditions of such release. (18 U.S.C. § 2263 (2006)).
(8) Mandatory Restitution The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA), Pub. L. No. 103-322, 108 Stat. 1796 (1994), requires courts to order full restitution in cases of sexual abuse (18 U.S.C. § 2248 (2006)) and interstate domestic violence, violation of a protection order, and stalking. (18 U.S.C. § 2264 (2006)).
(9) VAWA Self-Petitioning
VAWA’s immigration provisions allow certain battered immigrants to file for immigration relief without their abusers’ assistance or knowledge. This relief is available only for the spouses and children of U.S. citizens or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence. (8 U.S.C. § 1154 (2006 & Supp. III 2009)); (see Article III.H. for additional guidance on immigration relief).
RAPE VICTIMS & VICTIM IMPACT
CAVNET an extensive, searchable, online database of resources about violence against women
Center for Victims of Crime
Information on the dynamics of non-stranger rape.
National Center for Victims of Crime Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder that may be experienced by rape victims.
Center for Victims of Crime
Rape statistics, victims’ reactions to rape, as well as practical suggestions for assisting a rape victim after an assault.
Center for Victims of Crime
This website discusses male rape victims.
Network for Battered
Lesbians and Bisexual
This site includes resources for lesbian and bisexual survivors of violence.
Office on Violence Against
Department of Justice
This website provides information and research on sexual assault and domestic violence
Treatment Center at the UCLA Medical
Center, Santa Monica, California
This website describes the impact of rape on rape victims.
Victim Advocates (RVA), Chicago, Illinois
This website addresses the experience and reactions of male rape victims.
Victim Advocates (RVA), Chicago,
This website explains common myths and facts about rape.
This website contains sexual assault resources for survivors, advocates and criminal justice personnel, including state specific resources.
Victim Assistance Program, Akron, Ohio
MaleSurvivor.org Deals with the particular aspects of male on male rape
“Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life around.”
― Leo Buscaglia
Medical Whistleblower Advocacy Network
MEDICAL WHISTLEBLOWER ADVOCACY NETWORK
Washington, DC 20015
MedicalWhistleblowers (at) gmail.com
Educational Materials from Medical Whistleblower
Medical Whistleblower Canary Brochures
Your Problem Solving Personality
Behind the Blue Line - Law Enforcement Whistleblowers
Medical Whistleblower Canary Notes
"Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself." Confucius
"It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat."
Roosevelt- Excerpt from the speech "Citizenship In A Republic",
delivered at the Sorbonne, in Paris, France on 23 April, 1910